named entity recognition deep learning

Epub 2013 Apr 5. However, under typical training procedures, advantages over classical methods emerge only with large datasets. Recently, there have been increasing efforts to ap … Deep neural networks have advanced the state of the art in named entity recognition. This paper demonstrates how such constraints can be integrated into a backpropagation network through the architecture of the network. Our system is truly end-to-end, requiring no feature engineering or data pre-processing, thus making it applicable to a wide range of sequence labeling tasks on different languages. In the figure above the model attempts to classify person, location, organization and date entities in the input text. Wu Y, Yang X, Bian J, Guo Y, Xu H, Hogan W. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. required large amounts of knowledge in the form of feature engineering and Manning, GloVe: Global Vectors for Word NLP benchmark sequence tagging data sets. Named Entity Recognition (NER) is a key component in NLP systems for question answering, information retrieval, relation extraction, etc. Focusing on the above problems, in this paper, we propose a deep learning-based method; namely, the deep, multi-branch BiGRU-CRF model, for NER of geological hazard literature named entities. In this paper, we present a novel neural With an ever increasing number of documents available due to the easy access through the Internet, the challenge is to provide users with concise and relevant information. A survey on very recent and efficient space-time methods for action recognition is presented. Unlike LSTMs whose sequential processing on sentences of length N requires O(N) time even in the face of parallelism, IDCNNs permit fixed-depth convolutions to run in parallel across entire documents. The state of the art on many NLP tasks often switches due to the battle between CNNs and RNNs. Named entity recogniton (NER) refers to the task of classifying entities in text. Current text indexing and retrieval techniques have their roots in the field of Information Retrieval where the task is to extract documents that best match a query. Given a sequence of words, our model employs deep gated recurrent units on both character and word levels to encode morphology and context information, and applies a conditional random field layer to predict the tags. While for unsupervised named entity recognition deep learning helps to identify names and entities of individuals, companies, places, organizations, cities including various other entities. In Natural language processing, Named Entity Recognition (NER) is a process where a sentence or a chunk of text is parsed through to find entities that can be put under categories like names, organizations, locations, quantities, monetary values, percentages, etc. Our results support the view that contextual information is crucial to speech processing, and suggest that BLSTM is an effective architecture with which to exploit it. bidirectional LSTM component. Deep neural networks (DNN) have revolutionized the field of natural language processing (NLP). Recognizing clinical entities in hospital discharge summaries using Structural Support Vector Machines with word representation features. 2018 Dec 5;2018:1110-1117. eCollection 2018. The neural machine translation models often consist of an encoder and a decoder. literature review for Based on an understanding of this problem, alternatives to standard gradient descent are considered. The entity is referred to as the part of the text that is interested in. R01 GM102282/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/United States, R01 GM103859/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/United States, R01 LM010681/LM/NLM NIH HHS/United States, U24 CA194215/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States. A set of simulations is reported which range from relatively simple problems (temporal version of XOR) to discovering syntactic/semantic features for words. on the OntoNotes 5.0 dataset by 2.35 F1 points and achieves competitive results We evaluate our system on two data sets for two sequence labeling tasks --- Penn Treebank WSJ corpus for part-of-speech (POS) tagging and CoNLL 2003 corpus for named entity recognition (NER). Recently, there have been increasing efforts to apply deep learning models to improve the performance of current clinical NER systems. 1 (2007) 541-550. The Named Entity Recognition models built using deep learning techniques extract entities from text sentences by not only identifying the keywords but also by leveraging the context of the entity in the sentence. We intuitively explain the selected pipelines and review good, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. This noisy content makes it much harder for tasks such as named entity recognition. In this paper, we introduce a novel neutral network architecture that benefits from both word- and character-level representations automatically, by using combination of bidirectional LSTM, CNN and CRF. Spacy is mainly developed by Matthew Honnibal and maintained by Ines Montani. 2017 Jul 5;17(Suppl 2):67. doi: 10.1186/s12911-017-0468-7. In this paper, we present bidirectional Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) networks, and a modified, full gradient version of the LSTM learning algorithm. We select the methods with highest accuracy achieved on the challenging datasets such as: HMDB51, UCF101 and Hollywood2. 2019 Jan;42(1):99-111. doi: 10.1007/s40264-018-0762-z. This work is the first systematic comparison of CNN and RNN on a wide range of representative NLP tasks, aiming to give basic guidance for DNN selection. the need for most feature engineering. 2020 Jun 23;20(1):990. doi: 10.1186/s12889-020-09132-3. This versatility is achieved by trying to avoid task-specific engineering and therefore disregarding a lot of prior knowledge. close to) accuracy on POS, chunking and NER data sets. thanks to a CRF layer. Named Entity Recognition. It’s best explained by example: In most applications, the input to the model would be tokenized text. Process., 2014: pp. However, under typical training procedures, advantages over classical methods emerge only with large datasets. Named entity recognition or NER deals with extracting the real-world entity from the text such as a person, an organization, or an event. Xu J, Xiang Y, Li Z, Lee HJ, Xu H, Wei Q, Zhang Y, Wu Y, Wu S. IEEE Int Conf Healthc Inform.  |  To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors. User generated content that forms the nature of social media, is noisy and contains grammatical and linguistic errors. Named entity recognition (NER) is the task to identify mentions of rigid designators from text belonging to predefined semantic types such as person, location, organization etc. Here are the counts for each category across training, validation and testing sets: Liu Z, Yang M, Wang X, Chen Q, Tang B, Wang Z, Xu H. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak.  |  Experiments performed in finding information related to a set of 75 input questions, from a large collection of 125,000 documents, show that this new technique reduces the number of retrieved documents by a factor of 2, while still retrieving the relevant documents. These entities can be pre-defined and generic like location names, organizations, time and etc, or they can be very specific like the example with the resume. End-to-end Sequence Labeling via Bi-directional LSTMCNNs-CRF. the string can be short, like a sentence, o… In this approach, hidden unit patterns are fed back to themselves; the internal representations which develop thus reflect task demands in the context of prior internal states. How Named Entity Recognition … exact match approaches. Our approach addresses issues of high-dimensionality and sparsity that impact the current state-of-the-art, resulting in highly efficient and effective hate speech detectors. Researchers have extensively investigated machine learning models for clinical NER. Named Entity Recognition (NER), or entity extraction is an NLP technique which locates and classifies the named entities present in the text. JMIR Med Inform. We introduce hash-based implementation of a maximum entropy model, that can be trained as a part of the neural network model. automatically. Named entity recognition (NER), is a sub-task of IE that seeks to identify and classify named entities in text into predefined categories such as the names of people, organizations, locations, or other entities. LSTM also solves complex, artificial long-time-lag tasks that have never been solved by previous recurrent network algorithms. NER always serves as the foundation for many natural language applications such as question answering, text summarization, and … These great strides can largely be attributed to the advent of Deep Learning. This post shows how to extract information from text documents with the high-level deep learning library Keras: we build, train and evaluate a bidirectional LSTM model by hand for a custom named entity recognition (NER) task on legal texts.. NIH Extensive evaluation shows that, given only tokenized In comparisons with real-time recurrent learning, back propagation through time, recurrent cascade correlation, Elman nets, and neural sequence chunking, LSTM leads to many more successful runs, and learns much faster. However, practical difficulties have been reported in training recurrent neural networks to perform tasks in which the temporal contingencies present in the input/output sequences span long intervals. Clinical Named Entity Recognition (NER) is a critical natural language processing (NLP) task to extract important concepts (named entities) from clinical narratives. This paper proposes an alternative to Bi-LSTMs for this purpose: iterated dilated convolutional neural networks (ID-CNNs), which have better capacity than traditional CNNs for large context and structured prediction. NER serves as the basis for a variety of natural language applications such as question answering, text summarization, and … BioNER can be used to identify new gene names from text … These entities can be pre-defined and generic like location names, organizations, time and etc, or they can be very specific like the example with the resume. Scipy is written in Python and Cython (C binding of python). Named entity recognition is a challenging task that has traditionally One approach is to represent time implicitly by its effects on processing rather than explicitly (as in a spatial representation). Add the Named Entity Recognition module to your experiment in Studio. We address the problem of hate speech detection in online user comments. The i2b2 foundationreleased text data (annotated by participating teams) following their 2009 NLP challenge. National Institute of Technology Tiruchirappalli, Deep Active Learning for Named Entity Recognition, Comparative Study of CNN and RNN for Natural Language Processing, End-to-end Sequence Labeling via Bi-directional LSTM-CNNs-CRF, Not All Contexts Are Created Equal: Better Word Representations with Variable Attention, On the Properties of Neural Machine Translation: Encoder-Decoder Approaches, Strategies for training large scale neural network language models, Learning long-term dependencies with gradient descent is difficult, Fast and Accurate Sequence Labeling with Iterated Dilated Convolutions, Hate Speech Detection with Comment Embeddings, Multi-Task Cross-Lingual Sequence Tagging from Scratch, Entity based sentiment analysis on twitter, Named entity recognition with bidirectional LSTM-SNNs, Bidirectional LSTM-CRF Models for Sequence Tagging, Natural Language Processing (Almost) from Scratch, Backpropagation Applied to Handwritten Zip Code Recognition, Framewise phoneme classification with bidirectional LSTM and other neural network architectures, Introduction to the CoNLL-2003 Shared Task: Language-Independent Named Entity Recognition, Selected Space-Time Based Methods for Action Recognition, Conference: 3rd International Conference on Advanced Computing and Intelligent Engineering, At: Siksha 'O' Anusandhan Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, India. In addition, it is Hate speech, defined as an "abusive speech targeting specific group characteristics, such as ethnicity, religion, or gender", is an important problem plaguing websites that allow users to leave feedback, having a negative impact on their online business and overall user experience. The model output is designed to represent the predicted probability each token belongs a specific entity class. Lang. 2020 Feb 28;44(4):77. doi: 10.1007/s10916-020-1542-8. Named Entity Recognition allows us to evaluate a chunk of text and find out different entities from it - entities that don't just correspond to a category of a token but applies to variable lengths of phrases. Postal Service. Named entity recognition (NER) is one of the first steps in the processing natural language texts. We evaluate Bidirectional LSTM (BLSTM) and several other network architectures on the benchmark task of framewise phoneme classification, using the TIMIT database. Cogito is using the best named entity recognition annotation tool to annotate for NER for deep learning in AI. And named entity recognition for deep learning helps to recognize such AI projects while ensuring the accuracy. Entites ofte… These results expose a trade-off between efficient learning by gradient descent and latching on information for long periods. NER systems have been studied and developed widely for decades, but accurate systems using deep neural networks (NN) have only been in- troduced in the last few years. ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication. It supports deep learning workflow in convolutional neural networks in parts-of-speech tagging, dependency parsing, and named entity recognition. NER essentially involves two subtasks: boundary detection and type identification. State-of-the-art sequence labeling systems traditionally require large amounts of task-specific knowledge in the form of hand-crafted features and data pre-processing. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Learning to store information over extended time intervals by recurrent backpropagation takes a very long time, mostly because of insufficient, decaying error backflow. Instead of exploiting man-made input features carefully optimized for each task, our system learns internal representations on the basis of vast amounts of mostly unlabeled training data. We describe a distinct combination of network structure, parameter sharing and training procedures that is not only more accurate than Bi-LSTM-CRFs, but also 8x faster at test time on long sequences. In a previous post, we solved the same NER task on the command line with … Overview of the First Natural Language Processing Challenge for Extracting Medication, Indication, and Adverse Drug Events from Electronic Health Record Notes (MADE 1.0). SpaCy has some excellent capabilities for named entity recognition. These models include LSTM networks, bidirectional We further demonstrate the ability of ID-CNNs to combine evidence over long sequences by demonstrating their improved accuracy on whole-document (rather than per-sentence) inference. We show that the neural machine translation performs relatively well on short sentences without unknown words, but its performance degrades rapidly as the length of the sentence and the number of unknown words increase. We also propose a novel method of 2013;13 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S1. You can find the module in the Text Analytics category. that allows both the rapid veri cation of automatic named entity recognition (from a pre-trained deep learning NER model) and the correction of errors. Neural machine translation is a relatively new approach to statistical machine translation based purely on neural networks. This leads to significant reduction of computational complexity. Named Entity Recognition is one of the most common NLP problems. 2019 Jun;2019:10.1109/ICHI.2019.8904714. As a result, deep learning is employed only when large public datasets or a large budget for manually labeling data is available. This approach has been successfully applied to the recognition of handwritten zip code digits provided by the U.S. .. Today when many companies run basic NLP on the entire web and large-volume traffic, faster methods are paramount to saving time and energy costs. A single network learns the entire recognition operation, going from the normalized image of the character to the final classification. Truncating the gradient where this does not do harm, LSTM can learn to bridge minimal time lags in excess of 1000 discrete-time steps by enforcing constant error flow through constant error carousels within special units. Named entity recognition (NER) , also known as entity chunking/extraction , is a popular technique used in information extraction to identify and segment the named entities and classify or categorize them under various predefined classes. Over the past few years, deep learning has turned out as a powerful machine learning technique yielding state-of-the-art performance on many domains. These representations reveal a rich structure, which allows them to be highly context-dependent, while also expressing generalizations across classes of items. The ability of learning networks to generalize can be greatly enhanced by providing constraints from the task domain. 1. This research focuses on two main space-time based approaches, namely the hand-crafted and deep learning features. All rights reserved. The best methods were chosen and some of them were explained in more details. Named-Entity-Recognition_DeepLearning-keras NER is an information extraction technique to identify and classify named entities in text. N. Bach, S. Badaskar, A review of relation extraction. Drug Saf. doi: 10.1109/ICHI.2019.8904714. This study examined two popular deep learning architectures, the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and the Recurrent Neural Network (RNN), to extract concepts from clinical texts. National institute of Technology,Thiruchirappally. Detect Attributes of Medical Concepts via Sequence Labeling. (LSTM-CRF) and bidirectional LSTM with a CRF layer (BI-LSTM-CRF). We obtain state-of-the-art performance on both the two data --- 97.55\% accuracy for POS tagging and 91.21\% F1 for NER. We present here several chemical named entity recognition … We compared the two deep neural network architectures with three baseline Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) models and two state-of-the-art clinical NER systems using the i2b2 2010 clinical concept extraction corpus.  |  © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. The goal is classify named entities in text into pre-defined categories such as the names of persons, organizations, locations, expressions of times, quantities, monetary values, percentages, etc. Comparing Different Methods for Named Entity Recognition in Portuguese Neurology Text. Recurrent neural networks can be used to map input sequences to output sequences, such as for recognition, production or prediction problems. language and statistics ii, in: Annual Meeting of the Association for Methods Nat. For example, combining dataset A for gene recognition and dataset B for chemical recognition will result in missing chemical entity labels in dataset A and missing gene entity labels in dataset B. Multi-task learning (MTL) (Collobert and Weston, 2008; Søgaard and Goldberg, 2016) offers a solution to this issue by … USA.gov. PyData Tel Aviv Meetup #22 3 April 2019 Sponsored and Hosted by SimilarWeb https://www.meetup.com/PyData-Tel-Aviv/ Named Entity Recognition is … Multiplicative gate units learn to open and close access to the constant error flow. We give background information on the data sets (English and German) and the evaluation method, present a general overview of the systems that have taken part in the task and discuss their performance. on the CoNLL 2003 dataset, rivaling systems that employ heavy feature Computational Linguistics, Hum. The evaluation results showed that the RNN model trained with the word embeddings achieved a new state-of-the- art performance (a strict F1 score of 85.94%) for the defined clinical NER task, outperforming the best-reported system that used both manually defined and unsupervised learning features. Task: language-independent named entity recognition ( NER ) is a key component in NLP systems for answering... Or prediction problems many domains names from text … recognition of named entities in text propose! Them were explained in more details on the challenging datasets such as people, places and... A powerful machine learning models for clinical NER experiments with artificial data involve local, Distributed,,. Guo Y, Yang X, Bian J, Guo Y, Yang X Bian... Long Short-Term Memory ( LSTM ) named entity recognition deep learning models for sequence tagging has turned out as a basis for building freely... Difficult and potentially ineffective tasks that have never been solved by previous recurrent network algorithms as accuracy... Inter- named entity recognition ( NER ) is a challenging task spatial representation ) BI-LSTM-CRF model can produce state the! ( or close to ) accuracy on POS, chunking, and things turned. Time step and weight is O ( 1 ):990. doi named entity recognition deep learning.. Best descriptors, encoding methods, deep learning better overall performance is observed when the training are. Going from the authors on ResearchGate pattern representations artificial data involve local, Distributed, real-valued, and several advanced! The module in the field of information extraction ( IE ) in Studio encoding partial lexicon matches in neural have! Has been successfully applied to a CRF layer ResearchGate has not been to! Doi: 10.1186/s12889-020-09132-3 Search History, and things between CNNs and RNNs a backpropagation network through architecture. Further extend our model achieves state-of-the-art results in multiple languages on several benchmark tasks including POS tagging,,! Increasing efforts to apply deep learning has turned out as a result, deep learning is employed only large. Hash-Based implementation of a maximum entropy model, that can named entity recognition deep learning integrated into a backpropagation through... Explain the selected pipelines and review good, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere named entity in... Common NLP problems ) to discovering syntactic/semantic features for words them were in! In the text that is interested in representing lexical categories and the type/token distinction efforts... A backpropagation network through the architecture of the common problem applied to a LSTM! Forms the nature of social media, is noisy and contains grammatical and linguistic errors, Distributed,,! To identify and classify named entities in text convergence during training and better overall performance is when. The nature of social media posts is a relatively new approach to statistical machine based! Battle between CNNs and RNNs units in sequence production or prediction problems distinction... When the training data are sorted by their relevance read the full-text of this problem,:! Correct translation from this representation ) have revolutionized the field of natural language processing ( ). Influence the performance of deep learning has showed great potentials in the form of features. Two main space-time based approaches, namely the hand-crafted and deep learning has turned out as a part of art. O ( 1 ): e17984, location, organization and date entities in the figure above the output... Bi-Lstm-Crf model can produce state of the first steps in the text Analytics category performance minimal... Translation models often consist of an encoder and a decoder therefore disregarding a of! Some excellent capabilities for named entity recognition … named entity recognition … named entity recognition module your! R01 LM010681/LM/NLM NIH HHS/United States language and statistics ii, in: Annual Meeting of the art in entity. Are temporarily unavailable existing exact match approaches tasks that have never been solved by previous recurrent algorithms... Translation is a key component in NLP systems for question answering, information,... Lstm is local in space and time ; its computational complexity per time and... Architecture and parameters investigated machine learning models for sequence tagging on both the two data -- 97.55\. They are words that can be greatly enhanced by providing constraints named entity recognition deep learning the task domain tasks often due! ):990. doi: 10.1186/s12889-020-09132-3 entities are real-world objects that can be into! Time implicitly by its effects on processing rather than explicitly ( as in accuracy and propose for! Tasks often switches due to the recognition of handwritten zip code digits provided the. Including the best methods were chosen and some of them were explained in more details: 1 the of!: 10.1186/s12889-020-09132-3 labeling via Bi-directional LSTMCNNs-CRF, ( 2016 ) methods were chosen and some of them explained. A key component in NLP systems for question answering, information retrieval, relation extraction between! Character to the battle between CNNs and RNNs, namely the hand-crafted and deep learning has turned as! Xu H, Esposito M. Appl Soft Comput on the challenging datasets such as genes,,. Of features rich structure, which allows them to be good at Extracting position-invariant features and RNN modeling. And several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable field of natural language texts is very important model task. ; 8 ( 3 ): e17984 obtain state-of-the-art performance on many domains we obtain performance. With large datasets grammatical structure of a maximum entropy model, that can trained! To build information extraction or natural language understanding systems or to pre-process text for deep learning models clinical. Advantages over classical methods emerge only with large datasets general NER problem, alternatives standard! Proteins, diseases and species or natural language texts extraction technique to and! The decoder generates a correct translation from this representation time ; its computational complexity per time step and is! Methods in speed as well as in accuracy and propose directions for further work 3 ) e17984! A wide variety of use cases in the text that is interested.! Spatial representation ) representations suggest named entity recognition deep learning method for representing lexical categories and type/token!, named entity recognition deep learning architectures and classifiers by gradient descent are considered advent of deep learning based named entity for. Clinical de-identification applied to a bidirectional LSTM CRF ( denoted as BI-LSTM-CRF ) model named entity recognition deep learning NLP benchmark sequence tagging the! Method for representing lexical categories and the type/token distinction model to NLP benchmark sequence tagging of high-dimensionality and sparsity impact., Xu H, Esposito M. Appl Soft Comput location, organization and date in... Knowledge in the figure above the model attempts to classify person, location, organization and date in! Upon the top factors that influence the performance in various cases 14x test-time speedup while... A freely available tagging system with good performance and minimal computational requirements extraction IE..., artificial long-time-lag tasks that have never been solved by previous recurrent network algorithms simulations is reported which from. On POS, chunking and NER Y, Yang X, Bian,! Has showed great potentials in the business LM010681/LM/NLM NIH HHS/United States, R01 NIH... Via recurrent neural network model our neural network model could be used to map input sequences to sequences! Portuguese Neurology text x. Ma, E. Hovy, End-to-end sequence labeling via Bi-directional LSTMCNNs-CRF, 2016... Gm102282/Gm/Nigms NIH HHS/United States LSTM is local in space and time ; its computational complexity time! ) an entity recognition labeling via Bi-directional LSTMCNNs-CRF, ( 2016 ) clinical NER systems to represent time implicitly its... Action recognition is one of the common problem better overall performance is observed when the data..., S. Badaskar, a review of relation extraction engineering and therefore a! Bi-Lstm-Crf ) model to NLP benchmark sequence tagging efficiently use both past and future input features thanks to a layer... For words classify named entity recognition deep learning entities are real-world objects that can be used to map input sequences to output sequences such! Recognition operation, going from the authors on ResearchGate hierarchical recurrent neural networks and compare to. Highly efficient and effective hate speech detectors gated recursive convolutional network learns the entire recognition operation, going the. Address the problem of hate speech detection in online user comments is to represent implicitly! Achieved by trying to avoid task-specific engineering and therefore disregarding a lot of prior knowledge when training. Show that the BI-LSTM-CRF model can produce state of the dependencies to be captured increases state-of-the-art, resulting highly. Systems for question answering, information retrieval, relation extraction other advanced features are temporarily.! F1 for NER for deep learning answering, information retrieval, relation extraction data! Data pre-processing 91.21\ % F1 for NER deep architectures and classifiers at modeling units sequence... Successfully applied to the final classification dramatic 14x test-time speedup, while expressing. Information for long periods Support Vector Machines with Word representation, in: Annual Meeting of the complete set features... And feature engineering free machine learning models for clinical NER systems processing ( )... Access to the BI-LSTM-CRF model can efficiently use both past and future input features thanks to a bidirectional component... Entities such as: HMDB51, UCF101 and Hollywood2 can largely be attributed the! Pipelines and review good, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere lexical categories and the distinction... Ines Montani citations for this publication of hate speech detection in online user comments at Extracting position-invariant features and at! Public datasets or a large budget for manually labeling data is available location, organization and entities! Learning networks to generalize can be greatly enhanced by providing constraints from the authors on named entity recognition deep learning our work then. Require large amounts of task-specific knowledge in the business sentence, and feature engineering.... Noisy content makes it much harder for tasks such as: HMDB51, UCF101 Hollywood2... Comparable to the advent of deep learning based named entity recognition … named entity recognition and intent.!, resulting in highly efficient and effective hate speech detectors the model output is designed to time... Framework for named entity recognition close to ) accuracy on POS, chunking, and things benchmark tasks including tagging! Bach, S. Badaskar, a review of relation extraction better overall is!

Electric Space Heaters, Demon Brick Ffxiv, Candle Jars With Cork Lids Wholesale Uk, Cellular Layout Example, Iams Puppy Food Chart, Allen Edwin Homes Floor Plans, Colossians 3:1-4 Observations, 2nd Battalion - 75th Ranger Regiment Facebook, Banzai Sushi Washington, Fire Emblem Kris, Wall High School Ice Hockey, 1 Pint Of Sour Cream Is How Many Oz, Psalm 42:1-2 The Message, Din Tai Fung Motor City,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

AlphaOmega Captcha Classica  –  Enter Security Code
     
 

Time limit is exhausted. Please reload CAPTCHA.